Roman armies would defeat a people and immediately gather the artists, mathematicians, etc. to work for Rome. If they refused they might be killed or enslaved. Also, at times they would hire professional soldiers or mercenaries from other nations to fight for them. It was quite common for Roman cavalry to be non-Roman.
Positive results for SNP M205 [M205+] with a map that shows all the areas that were under Greek or Roman government at any time in Antiquity. Copyright Kevin Pople, Y-DNA Haplogroup J-M205 Project, Facebook/YouTube, 2013.
Haplogroup J2 (J-M172) Roman Empire, with thanks to Robert HA Sanders.
FTDNA J2b project participants:
J2b* - 7,2%
J2b distribution (Genetic Atlas)
National Genographic (J-M172, J-M205)
J2b beta map (Copyright: j2-ydnaproject.org)
At the peak of its civilization, the Dimini settlement was located about 1 kilometre from the coast. This location allowed it to access important trade routes while keeping it close to flatlands ideal for maintaining animals. Decorated Dimini pottery, obsidian, stone and bone tools and jewellery have all been found as evidence of the culture's advancement.
J2b: Quite frequent haplogroup among the Serbs, divided into two branches J2b1 J2b2 M205 and M241. J2b M205 is present in several families from Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, which are undoubtedly related. Everything points to the area around Lake Skadar and the tribe Klimenta, but it still needs confirmation. J2b M241 is most common in the Balkans, the Albanians.
Ek Thom proposes the hypothesis that Haplogroup J2b arrived in northern Greece during the Neolithic period (Sesklo and Dimini for example). Later, J2b became J2b1 (J-M205) by mutation in Greece.
J-M205 most likely went to the western coast of Turkey (Anatolia) when Greek colonies were set-up. If we link J-M205 with a Greek expansion theory it would easily explain the Mediterranean spread of J-M205. There were Greek colonies all over the Mediterranean: Turkey (Anatolia), southern Italy (Magna Graecia), southern France and Spain. These countries correspond to the ancestral origins of the people who have tested their Y-DNA.
Regarding Bulgaria: “… the presence of a Greek population in what is today Bulgaria dates back to the 7th century BC.” Also, regarding the UK, there were no Greek establishments but “Many Greeks later arrived with the Roman legions as soldiers and traders, and their presence is attested by inscriptions on curse tablets, gravestones and dedicatory tablets in both Greek and Latin displayed in the Museum of London and elsewhere.”
At present, J2b2 seems to be more common among Greek/Albanians, while J2b1 among Slav speaking on the Balkans.
Of course, the spreading of J-M205 may have taken on different forms, quite a few ancient civilizations flourished in territories where J2b1 lineages are now preponderant. This is the case of the Carians, the Lydians, the Lycians and other people living in southwest Anatolia; as well as the Illyrians, Thracians and Volga Bulgars.
The Roman army invaded Britain in 43 AD and left around 400 years later, in the early 5th century. But historians and scientists claim that the legions left behind their legacy in the genes of many Britons.
Mycenaean bronze double axes and other objects (Rillaton Barrow, Pelynt Dagger) dating from the 13th century BCE have been found in Ireland and in Wessex (Pople hotspot) and Cornwall in England, proving the earliest Greek contact with Ireland and Great Britain.
Hadrian's Wall Country: Paternal DNA results have confirmed that our Pople line is linked directly to the Proto-Thracians with the Greco-Balkanese haplogroup of J2b1 (M205+). These auxiliary soldiers were stationed in northern England and recruited from the area of southeastern Europe. The Thracians were known for their skills as horsemen, certainly the "alae" ("wings" if cavalry) were, even the infantry amongs the Thracian units were sometimes "part-mounted" or "equitatis" (mounted).
The map below from Palaeolexicon is a good overview of the places Carians were believed to live. Haplogroups G2 and J2: Both arrive to Greece, but J2 is much more dominant, while G2 reaches mainly Thessaly. G2 however, spreads farming westwards to Europe. J2 spreads towards the Balkans but fades gradually. However, people belonging to the J2 haplogroup reach in small number as far as southern Sweden (recent study).
Haplogroup J2b1 (M205) World Top Frequency: Aydin Province (Aydin ili) of the Aegean (Ege Bölgesi) census-defined region of Turkey (Anatolia). Aydın was founded by the ancient Thracians and was once known as Tralles. The area is an earthquake zone and the city was built and rebuilt by a succession of Spartans, Phrygians, Ionians, Lydians, Persians and Ancient Romans. (Apollo).
Since J2b1 is from around Greece, then my best guess would be that it came to the British Isles from an invasion (Roman Empire) or settlement (Ancient Greek seafarers)
J2b (M102) map (Europe + India), parent marker of J2b1 (M205).
shepherd-map-j2b, Route of HG J2b1 (M12; M102) migration (with M205 presumably developing later on in the Balkans or Asia Minor).
Rita Y. Y. Yong et al. - Molecular characterization of a polymorphic 3-Mb deletion at chromosome Yp11.2 containing the AMELY locus in Singapore and Malaysia populations // Hum Genet (2007) 122:237–249 // DOI 10.1007/s00439-007-0389-0
Tin sources and settlement in the Bronze Age of south-eastern Europe: a pilot study from western Serbia. ** Notice the correlation between Y-DNA Haplogroup J2b and the location of field work in western Serbia.
The Alpine Celts of the Hallstatt culture are associated with haplogroups I2b, G, E1b1b, J2b (metallurgy) and R1b.
"Population data is almost there. Thus, Haplogroup J2b1 found with a frequency of 3.2% in the "Phocaea" (west coast of Anatolia), and in one of the regions of Greece with a frequency of 1.7%. It is known that small quantities it is present in Armenia, and in Europe, for example, in the Penza region found 1 of 81 (1.2%), and in the Balkans in Montenegro about 0.5%." Gentis.Ru.
With our first confirmed Indian J-M205, there is a good chance that maybe this marker could be found in the Kalash people.
Not only is the Greek genetic legacy clearly detectible today, but it is detectible among not only the Greeks, but all their neighboring populations of partial Greek ancestry.
You can imagine some of the ancient ancestors of todays J2b's working with stone and mud brick to build homes and other structures in central Greece.
Haplogroup J2b1 and the "devshirme" system, where Christian boys were abducted from Albanian (and also Bosnian and Serbian) families. They were forced to convert to Islam, and they were conscripted as "janissaries" (in Turkish: yenicheri = "new soldier").
"M12 and M205 overlap in that area north of Caspian sea. Coincidentally the birthplace of IE languages is at the same area. Also the spread of IE languages fits the spread of M12. Also the linguistic differences between Albanian and Greek fit well with the M12-M205 dichotomy. So to make my point, I would not be surprised if the original IE colonizers were carrying some J2b."-- Kamani
John Cartmell, another British J2b1. His paper trail links back to Ribchester (originally established as a Roman auxiliary fort, Sarmatians were posted there!), Lancashire, England. (Image copyright: King Arthur)
Travel & Events: Thracian Inheritance, there is no doubt that Y-DNA Haplogroup J-M205, J2b1 would have been carried by Thracians in the Balkan peninsula and parts of Anatolia.
This warrior dress was part of the burial gifts of an Odrysian Aristocrat, discovered in Golyamata Mogila (the Big Tumulus), situated between the villages of Zlatinitsa and Malomirovo in the Yambol Region, Bulgaria. It is dated to the mid 4th century BC and consists of a bronze helmet of the Chalkidean type with unique decorations of coiled snake and an iron, scaled armour. The burial also contained swords, spears and bronze arrow heads.
"Phylogenetic relationships and Y-chromosome haplogroup absolute and relative frequencies in the following various populations: Anatolian Greeks, mainland Greeks, four regions in Turkey and Provence near known Neolithic settlements.King et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:69 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-69"-- Biomedcentral website According to this survey J2b1 M205 was present in Sesklo (Thessalia, Greece) and Phokaia (Ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia).
Volga Bulgars (J2b1 hot-spot): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GBtwki6m0e8
"J2b has a quite different distribution from J2a. J2b seems to have a stronger association with the Chalcolithic cultures of Southeast Europe, and is particularly common in the Balkans, Central Europe and Italy, which is roughly the extent of the European Copper Age culture..."
"... For this reason, and because it is generally found among the upper castes of India, it is thought that some J2b lineages might have been part of the Indo-Aryan invasions of South Asia (3,500 years ago) alongside R1a1a. It is conceivable that a minority of J2b, G2a3b1 and R1b1b from the Caucasus region migrated to the Volga-Ural region in the early Bronze Age..."
"J2b has a quite different distribution from J2a. J2b seems to have a stronger association with the Chalcolithic cultures of Southeast Europe, and is particulary common in the Balkans, Central Europe and Italy, which is roughly the extent of the European Copper Age culture"